Many people are familiar with ACL injuries in athletes but did you know your dog can also tear their ACL? Read on to find out more from our Poway vets on what the differences are between ACL injuries in dogs and people, and how ACL injuries are treated in dogs.
What is the ACL in dogs called?
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a thin connective tissue in the middle of our knees which connects the lower leg bone to the upper leg bone.
In dogs we call this connective tissue called the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL). As with a person's ACL, the CCL connects the dog's tibia (bone below the knee) to their femur (bone above the knee).
One of the primary differences between a person's ACL and a dog's CCL is that, due to the angle of the dog's back legs when they are standing, walking, or running their CCL is always load bearing.
What are the differences between ACL & CCL injuries?
ACL injuries are especially prevalent among athletes. These injuries are typically the result of an acute trauma resulting from a sudden movement, such as a change in direction while running or a jump.
Dog CCL injuries typically come on gradually rather than suddenly, and tend to become progressively worse with activity.
What are the symptoms of an ACL injury in dogs?
It's important to note that, because people are accustomed to ACL injuries, it is common to refer to CCL injuries in dogs as an ACL injury.
The most common signs of an ACL injury in dogs are:
- Lameness and limping in the hind legs.
- Stiffness, often most noticeable after rest, following exercise.
- Difficulty rising up off the floor or jumping.
If your dog is suffering from a mild ACL injury, it is likely to become worse over time with symptoms becoming more pronounced. If left untreated a mild ACL injury will likely lead to a very painful tear.
Sadly, dogs with a single torn ACL tend to favor the uninjured leg during activity, which frequently results in the injury of the second leg. It is estimated that 60% of dogs with a single ACL injury will soon sustain a second knee injury.
How are dog ACL injuries treated?
Dogs diagnosed with an ACL injury have access to a variety of effective treatments. When determining the most effective treatment for your dog's injury, your veterinarian will consider your dog's lifestyle and energy level, as well as its age, size, and weight.
What are the available ACL treatment options for dogs?
- Treating an ACL injury with a knee brace is a non-surgical option that may help to stabilize the knee joint, and give the ligament time to scar over and repair itself. In order to be effective, a knee brace should be combined with dramatically reduced activity levels, which can be difficult for many dogs.
Extracapsular Repair - Lateral Suture
- This type of ACL surgery is typically recommended for small to medium sized dogs weighing less than 50lbs and involves replacing the torn ligament with an artificial ligament on the outside of the joint.
Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy - TPLO
- With TPLO surgery the need for the CCL ligament is eliminated by cutting and flattening the tibial plateau (the top section of the tibia), then stabilizing it in a new position with the help of a plate and screws.
Tibial Tuberosity Advancement - TTA
- TTA surgery also eliminates the need for the CCL ligament by cutting the top of the tibia, moving it forward, and then stabilizing it in its new position with a a stainless steel metal plate.
Can a dog live with a torn ACL?
While dogs can live with a torn ACL, their quality of life is affected. Getting your pup to the vet immediately is important, as a torn ACL without treatment can require surgery.
How long will it take for my dog to recover from ACL surgery?
After ACL surgery, some dogs will recover more quickly than others. However, ACL surgery recovery is always a lengthy process! In spite of the fact that your dog may be able to walk within 24 hours of surgery, expect a full recovery and return to normal activities to take at least 16 weeks.
It's important to pay attention to your dog's healing process and follow your vet's advice. Never force your dog to do exercises if they resist as this can lead to re-injuring the leg.